السبت، 12 فبراير، 2011

درس لغة المانية

درس لغة المانية

ضمائر الشخصية - Prsonalpronomen


learning target


Aim of this section is to learn the personal pronouns and their use in the four cases.

personal pronoun
(as subject)

verb

personal pronoun
(as object)

I
you
he/she/it
we
you
they

know
know
knows
know
know
know

her.
her.
her.
her.
her.
her.



rules


in general

The term personal comes from word person. We use the personal pronouns to talk about a person or thing.

The term pronoun consists of the words pro (für) and noun (nomen) which means the pronouns stand for a person / thing and with their help the name of the noun can be replaced.

example: Catherine Estose Pacana is my girlfriend. She lives in Cagayan (instead of repeating the name again: Catherine Estose Pacana lives in Cagayan).



personal pronouns in nominative

These pronouns are used to speak about a person / thing who does something or is something. The pronoun is the subject of the sentence.

ich

du / Sie

er

sie

es

wir

ihr

sie


  • ich: you use when you speak about yourself
  • du: you use when you speak to a single person (informal)
  • er: you use when you speak about a male person or a thing with a male gender
  • sie: you use when you speak about a female person or a thing with a female gender
  • es: you use when you speak about a thing with a neutral gender
  • wir: you use when you speak about several people yourself included
  • ihr: you use when you speak to several people
  • sie: you use when you speak about several people
  • Sie: you use when you speak to a single person (formal)

There are two big differences between German and English:

- In German "er/sie" (he/she) is also used to descibe dead things. Most dead things in German have a male or female gender.
- In German are two forms of "you". "Du" is used for family members, friends, children and other people who are close to the speaker. "Sie" is formal way to say you and is used for business partner, colleagues and other adults who are not close to the speaker.



personal pronouns in dative and accusative

Here you can use the same explanation like in nominative. We speak again about a person / thing but in the dative and accusative the person / thing is not acting. It is the object of the sentence.
Surely you will ask where is the difference between dative and accusative because in English there is just one case and not two. This is an own big topic and will be covered in the section "Die 4 Fälle".

  • mir / mich: you use when somebody does something with you
  • dir / dich: you use when you do something with a single person (informal)
  • ihm / ihn: you use when somebody does something with a male person
  • ihr / sie: you use when somebody does something with a female person
  • ihm / es: you use when somebody does something with a dead thing
  • uns / uns: you use when somebody does something with several people yourself included
  • euch / euch: you use when somebody does something with several people
  • ihnen / sie : you use when somebody does something with several people
  • Ihnen / Sie: you use when you do something with a single person (formal)

personal pronouns in genitive

The personal pronouns in genitive are not used to talk about the person but about what belongs to the person / about what possesses the person.

  • mein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to you
  • dein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a single person (informal)
  • sein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a male person
  • ihr(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a female person
  • sein(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a dead thing
  • unser(e): you use to talk about things which belong several people yourself included
  • euer(e) : you use to talk about things which belong to several people
  • ihr(e/er) : you use to talk about things which belong to several people
  • Ihr(e/er): you use to talk about things which belong to a single person (formal)

I put the endings in brackets because in the genitive case it depends on the gender which ending you have to use. This problem will be covered in the section "Possessivpronomen".



all personal pronouns


Person

Numerus

Geschlecht

1.Person

Singular

-

2.Person

Singular

-

3.Person

Singular

männlich

3.Person

Singular

weiblich

3.Person

Singular

sächlich

1.Person

Plural

-

2.Person

Plural

-

3.Person

Plural

-

2.Person

Sing./Plur.

-

Nominativ

Deutsch

Englisch

ich

I

du

you

er

he

sie

she

es

it

wir

we

ihr

you

sie

they

Sie

you

Genitiv

Deutsch

Englisch

mein(e/er)

my

dein(e/er)

your

sein(e/er)

his

ihr(e/er)

her

sein(e/er)

its

unser(e)

our

euer(e)

your

ihr(e/er)

their

Ihr(e/er)

your

Dativ

Deutsch

Englisch

mir

me

dir

you

ihm

him

ihr

her

ihm

it

uns

us

euch

you

ihnen

them

Ihnen

you

Akkusativ

Deutsch

Englisch

mich

me

dich

you

ihn

him

sie

her

es

it

uns

us

euch

you

sie

them

Sie

you


  • 1. Person: pronouns of the 1st person refer to the speaker
  • 2. Person: pronouns of the 2nd person refer to the person you talk to
  • 3. Person: pronouns of the 3rd person refer to the person / thing you talk about

درس لغة الالمانية

درس لغة الالمانية

تصريف الافعال - Konjugation der Verben

Verben im Präsens

learning target


Aim of this section is to bring any verb in the correct form in the present tense:

Subject


any verb


object.


I
you
he/she/it
we
you
they

read
read
reads
read
read
read

a book.
a book.
a book.
a book.
a book.
a book.

In English it's quite easy. You just have to add a "s" for "he/she/it" and for the rest you can take the infinitive.
In German there is a different ending for almost every person.



rules


There are three groups of verbs:

  • group A: verbs which follow a strict pattern
  • group B: verbs which follow a strict pattern with slightly exceptions
  • group C: verbs which don't follow any pattern

group A: verbs which follow a strict pattern

Fortunately, most verbs follow a strict pattern which is easy to remember:

person

ending

example
(gehen = go)

ich

stem + e

gehe

du

stem + st

gehst

er / sie / es

stem + t

geht

wir

"infinitive"

gehen

ihr

stem + t

geht

sie

"infinitive"

gehen

For "wir" and "sie" (plural) just use the infinitive without any modification. For "du", "er/sie/es" and "ihr" use the Wortstamm (stem) and add the ending from the table.
The Wortstamm (stem) is the infinitive without the ending "en".


group B: verbs which follow a strict pattern with slightly exceptions

Verbs of group B follow the same rules as group A but for some verbs slightly modifications are necessary:

1.) Verbs in which the stem ends with "t", "d", "chn", "dn", "fn", "gn" or "tm" require an additional "e" after the stem in the "du", "er/sie/es" and "ihr" -form.


person

ending

example
(arbeiten = work)

ich

stem + e

arbeite

du

stem + e + st

arbeitest

er / sie / es

stem + e + t

arbeitet

wir

"infinitive"

arbeiten

ihr

stem + e + t

arbeitet

sie

"infinitive"

arbeiten



2.) Verbs in which the stem ends with "s", "ss", "ß", "x" or "z" require just a "t" instead of "st" in the the "du"-form.


person

ending

example
(tanzen = dance)

ich

stem + e

tanze

du

stem + t

tanzt

er / sie / es

stem + t

tanzt

wir

"infinitive"

tanzen

ihr

stem + t

tanzt

sie

"infinitive"

tanzen



3.) When the stem ends with "eln" the "e" before "l" is dropped in the "ich"-form.


person

ending

example
(lächeln = smile)

ich

stem - e + e

lächle

du

stem + st

lächelst

er / sie / es

stem + t

lächelt

wir

"infinitive"

lächeln

ihr

stem + t

lächelt

sie

"infinitive"

lächeln



4.) Some verbs with an "a" or "e" in their stem change the stem vowel to "ä" or "ie / i" in the "du" and "er/sie/es"-form.


person

example a -> ä
(schlafen = sleep)

example e -> ie
(sehen = see)

example e -> i
(geben = give)

ich

schlafe

sehe

gebe

du

schläfst

siehst

gibst

er / sie / es

schläft

sieht

gibt

wir

"infinitive"

"infinitive"

"infinitive"

ihr

schlaft

seht

gebt

sie

"infinitive"

"infinitive"

"infinitive"




group C: verbs which don't follow any pattern

A group of verbs don't follow any rule and their forms have to be learned by heart. To this group belong:

  • Hilfsverben (auxiliary verbs): sein, haben, werden
  • Modalverben (modal verbs): wollen, sollen, müssen, können, dürfen, mögen
  • einige Vollverben (some main verbs): wissen


examples


Infinitiv

ich

du

er / sie / es

wir

ihr

sie

Englisch

sein

bin

bist

ist

sind

seid

sind

be

haben

habe

hast

hat

haben

habt

haben

have

werden

werde

wirst

wird

werden

werdet

werden

will

wollen

will

willst

will

wollen

wollt

wollen

want

können

kann

kannst

kann

können

könnt

können

can

müssen

muss

musst

muss

müssen

müsst

müssen

must

sollen

soll

sollst

soll

sollen

sollt

sollen

shall

dürfen

darf

darfst

darf

dürfen

dürft

dürfen

may

mögen

mag

magst

mag

mögen

mögt

mögen

like

bringen

bringe

bringst

bringt

bringen

bringt

bringen

bring

denken

denke

denkst

denkt

denken

denkt

denken

think

kennen

kenne

kennst

kennt

kennen

kennt

kennen

know

rennen

renne

rennst

rennt

rennen

rennt

rennen

run

wissen

weiß

weißt

weiß

wissen

wisst

wissen

know

bekommen

bekommme

bekommst

bekommt

bekommen

bekommt

bekommen

get

bleiben

bleibe

bleibst

bleibt

bleiben

bleibt

bleiben

stay

fahren

fahre

fährst

fährt

fahren

fahrt

fahren

drive

finden

finde

findest

findet

finden

findet

finden

find

fühlen

fühle

fühlst

fühlt

fühlen

fühlt

fühlen

feel

gehen

gehe

gehst

geht

gehen

geht

gehen

go

heißen

heiße

heißt

heißt

heißen

heißt

heißen

be called

hören

höre

hörst

hört

hören

hört

hören

hear

klingen

klinge

klingst

klingt

klingen

klingt

klingen

sound

kommen

komme

kommst

kommt

kommen

kommt

kommen

come

lächeln

lächle

lächelst

lächelt

lächeln

lächelt

lächeln

smile

lassen

lasse

läßt

läßt

lassen

lasst

lassen

let

lernen

lerne

lernst

lernt

lernen

lernt

lernen

learn

lesen

lese

liest

liest

lesen

lest

lesen

read

nehmen

nehme

nimmst

nimmt

nehmen

nehmt

nehmen

take

machen

mache

machst

macht

machen

macht

machen

make

rufen

rufe

rufst

ruft

rufen

ruft

rufen

call

sagen

sage

sagst

sagt

sagen

sagt

sagen

say

sammeln

sammle

sammelst

sammelt

sammeln

sammelt

sammeln

collect

schmecken

schmecke

schmeckst

schmeckt

schmecken

schmeckt

schmecken

taste

schreiben

schreibe

schreibst

schreibt

schreiben

schreibt

schreiben

write

sehen

sehe

siehst

sieht

sehen

seht

sehen

see

sprechen

spreche

sprichst

spricht

sprechen

sprecht

sprechen

speak

vergessen

vergesse

vergisst

vergisst

vergessen

vergesst

vergessen

forget

vermissen

vermisse

vermisst

vermisst

vermissen

vermisst

vermissen

miss

versuchen

versuche

versuchst

versucht

versuchen

versucht

versuchen

try


Verben im Präteritum (Imperfekt)

For the conjugation of the verbs in the "Präteritum" tense see Vergangenheit - Das Präteritum (Imperfekt).